November 14, 2018
Studies investigating the rate of weight loss and consequential weight regain have found:
Vink RG, Roumans NJ, Arkenbosch LA, Mariman EC, van Baak MA. The effect of rate of weight loss on long-term weight regain in adults with overweight and obesity. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2016 Feb;24(2):321-7. doi: 10.1002/oby.21346.
Paoli, A., Bianco, A., et al (2013). Long term successful weight loss with a combination biphasic ketogenic Mediterranean diet and Mediterranean diet protocol. Nutrients 5, 5205-521
Purcell K, Sumithran P, Prendergast LA, Bouniu CJ, Delbridge E, Proietto J. The effect of weight loss on long-term weight management: a randomised control trial. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2014;2(12):954-62.
Rolland C, Johnston KL, Lula S, Macdonald I, Broom J. Long-term weight loss maintenance and management following a VLCD: a 3-year outcome. Int J Clin Pract. 2014;68(3):379-87.
Nackers LM, Ross KM, Perri MG. The association between rate of initial weight loss and long-term success in obesity treatment: does slow and steady win the race? Int J Behav Med. 2010;17(3):161-7.
Studies researching the effect of high fat diets on weight have shown:
Noakes TD, Windt J. Evidence that supports the prescription of low-carbohydrate high-fat diets: a narrative review. 2017; 51(2):1-9.
Lim SS, Noakes M, Keogh JB, Clifton PM. Long-term effects of a low carbohydrate, low fat or high unsaturated fat diet compared to a non-intervention control. Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases. 2010;20(8):599-607.
Estruch R, Martinez-Gonzalez M, Corella D, Salas-Salvado J, Fito M, Chiva-Blanch G et al. Effect of a high-fat Mediterranean diet on bodyweight and waist circumference: a prespecified secondary outcomes analysis of the PREDIMED randomised control trial. Diabetes & Endocrinology. 2016;4(8):666-676.
Despite a lack of research into ketogenic diets implemented in adults beyond 12 months, there has been evidence demonstrating the long-term benefits of ketogenic diets:
Dashti HM, Mathew TC, Hussein T, Asfar SK, Behbahani A, Khoursheed MA et al. Long-term effects of a ketogenic diet in obese patients. Exp Clin Cardiol. 2004;9(3):200-205.
Dashti HM, Al-Zaid NS, Mathew TC, Al-Mousawi M, Asfar SK, Behbahani AI. Long term effects of ketogenic diet in obese subjects with high cholesterol. Mol Cell Biochem. 2006;286(1-2):1-9.
Dashti HM, Mathew TC, Khadada M, Al-Mousawi M, Talib H, Asfar Sk et al. Beneficial effects of ketogenic diet in obese diabetic subjects. Mol Cell Biochem. 2007;302(1-2):249-56.
Sumi P, Proietto J. Ketogenic diets for weight loss: A review of their principles, safety and efficacy. Obesity Research & Clinical Practice. 2008;2:1-13.
Studies exploring the effect of eating after 8pm on weight demonstrated:
Kelly Glazer Baron, Phyllis C. Zee, MD, Kathryn J. Reid, ‘meal timing influences daily caloric intake in healthy adults’ Published 2014 October 2nd
Amber W. Kinsey,Michael J. Ormsbee, ‘the health impact of nighttime eating: old and new perspectives’, Published 2015 April 9th
Stephanie Eng, David A Wagstaff, Sibylle Kranz, ‘eating late in the evening is associated with childhood obesity in some age groups but not in all children: the relationship between time of consumption and body weight status in U.S. children’Published 2009 May 21st
Studies exploring the role of carbohydrates in weight loss have found:
Kelly A Meckiling, Caitriona O’Sullivan, Dayna Saari, ‘comparison of a low-fat diet to a low-carbohydrate diet on weight loss, body composition, and risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease in free-living, overweight men and women’ published 2004 June 4th.
Tay j, Thompson CH, Luscombe-Marsh ND, Wycherley TP, Noakes M, Buckely JD, Wittert GA, Yancy WS jnr, Brinkworth GD, ‘effects of an energy-restricted low-carbohydrates, high unsaturated fat/low saturated fat diet versus a high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet in T2D. A two-year clinical trial’, published 2017 December 20th.
Grant D Brinkworth, Manny Noakes, Johnathon D Buckley, Jennifer B Keogh, Peter M Clifton, ‘long term effects of a very-low carbohydrate weight loss diet compared with an isocaloric diet’ published May 2009 13th.
Studies investigating the healthy benefits of a diet containing gluten in comparison to a gluten free diet have shown:
Gaesser, G. and Angadi, S. (2012). Gluten-Free Diet: Imprudent Dietary Advice for the General Population?. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 112(9), pp.1330-1333.
Niland, Benjamin and Brooks D Cash. “Health Benefits and Adverse Effects of a Gluten-Free Diet in Non-Celiac Disease Patients” Gastroenterology & hepatology vol. 14,2 (2018): 82-91.
Studies comparing the effects of diet shakes in comparison to wholefood diets (of equal nutritional composition) have shown:
S.M.Tieken, H.J.Leidy, A.J Stull, R.D.Mattes, R.A. Schuster, W.W. Campbell, ‘effects of solid versus liquid meal-replacement products of similar energy content on hunger, satiety and appetite-regulating hormones in older adults’, May 2007.
April J. Stull, John W. Apolzan, Anna E. Thalacker-Mercer, Heidi B. Iglay, Wayne W. Campbell, ‘liquid and solid meal replacement products differentially affect postprandial appetite and food intake in older adults’, published 2008 September 29th